The Origins of Farming in South-West Asia - db_GobekliTepe_Urfa-Region

The origins of farming


The haplogroup G distibution

The haplogroup G distibution


G-M201 G-PF3147 G-FGC6669 G-FGC6618 G-L91


The Origin

Y-DNA Haplogroup G-M201 stems from GHIJK-F1329, is formed in west Asia about 50,000 ybp and split in two subgroups G1-M342/M285 and G2-P287 about 25,000 ybp. At present G is a small haplogroup in Europe with an occurrence from 3% to 7%, somewhat more at places in the Alps, and increasing to 10% on the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.

Haplogroup G seems to have had a slow start, evolving somewhere in West Asia in isolation for tens of thousands of years, G did not participate in the earlier colonization of Eurasia. (1) Now about 2,5 % of the World population has this haplogroup. (1a)

G1-M342/M285 and G2-P287 entered Europe in Neolithic times in several waves, together with J1 and/or J2. It has subsequently declined in number, and was minimized upon the arrival in Europe of the corded ware culture in the Iron Age. It is often found in European archaeological DNA.


Haplogroup G first locations (T. Kandell).

The most probably region of the initial phase of G-M201 is estimated to be in Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran. For this are several indications. First, here is the only region with co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity of haplogroup G.

This map on the right side of Europe and Asia Minor shows the probable area of the beginning time of Haplogroup G in green. The decreasing spread of this group is indicated by fading from a dark to lighter green, to yellow and then to brown. (2)

Neolithic mtDNA samples Derenburg

Furthermore there is the similarity between the mtDNA haplogroups found in archaeological remains of the first European immigrants after the Ice Ages and the archeological mtDNA found in Anatolia. They have the highest resemblance of mtDNA in the world.

In various regions of the Near East, the so called Fertile Crescent, lived hunter-gatherers. The two best known groups are the the Baradostian, 34,000 – 20,000 ybp of the Zagros Mountains of western Iran and the Levanto-Aurignacian, 27,000 – 20,000 ybp in the Levant.

These hunters were evidently migratory throughout the territories they occupied; of permanent occupation there is no trace.

Here lived Our G forefather and his descendants only split round 27,000 ybp in two subgroups. G1-M342/M285 probably on the east side of the community, G2-P287 in the central and western part.

G2a-P15 came again much later. It was formed 20700 ybp and had a TMRCA of 18000 ybp. Slowly they grew in the Fertile Crescent region as a proto-agrarian semi-sedentary hunter gatherers society. First in the warm and moist Bølling-Allerød interstadial, 14,700 to 12,700 ybp there was a rapid population growth in G and as a result emerged many subgroups. They lived in a population with Pre-Pottery Neolithic Culture which existed there for about 4 milennia.

Around 10.000 ybp the earliest archaeo-botanical remains of long-term plant management in the world appears in the Fertile Crescent. It is a domesticated-type "Emmer wheat".

The Origins of Farming in South-West Asia - db_GobekliTepe_Urfa-Region

The origins of farming in Anatolia and the fertile crescent. (3)

Pre Pottery Neolitic (11,700-8,800)

At the end of this youngest Dryas period, that lasted about a thousand years, the old knowledge remained preserved and was passed on. The cornfields were operated again by the Natufians as at Jericho and Abu Hureyra. The population concentration was larger now than ever with up to 500 inhabitants. In the fertile Peninsula, a remarkable amount of cultural diversity soon emerged. Grain silos and a wall were built around the Jericho of that time.Jericho would then be the oldest city in the world.

Around 12,000-11,000 ybp, humans began practicing agriculture here and started making pottery. The first urban society began in Göbekli Tepe around 11,550 ybp (9,500 BC). Probably this was a special place of worship. They built here their first temples and homes.

The archaeo-botanical remains from Boncuklu Höyük in west Anatolia to Çatal Höyük in south Anatolia in Turkey and Chogha Golan in the Zagros mountains in West Iran represent the earliest records of long-term plant management.

In the north of the Fertile Crescent, between 10,500 and 9,500 ybp began the domestication of the four later farm animals: sheep, goat, pig and cattle.


Pottery Neolitic (8,800 ybp)
Halaf, Tepecik Ciftlik and Çatalhöyük figurines

"Seated Goddess" figurines from the Halaf Culture c. 7,500 ybp, Tepecik-Ciftlik before 8,500 ybp, and Çatalhöyük c. 9,000 ybp.

The first pottery is found in Anatolia at Çatal höyük dated 9,000 ybp and in Saby Abyad on the Euphrates 8,800 ybp. Over the next centuries we see it appearing throughout the region. Remains of good quality pottery bowls have been found painted with simple parallel lines in red and black, but also simple, fairly coarse, red-baked pots for general use.

Çatal Höyük gives a detailed picture of the changes that occur over time. Prior to 8,500 ybp there are serried built-up areas, which are seen as a high degree of cohesion, but after that the structure differs into a large number of smaller units, separated by open spaces, indicating a shift from collectivity to individual households. At the same time, the number of inhabitants decreases in the old settlement, while flat new settlements are established.

In the Levant the same thing happened a few centuries earlier. This change is related to the emergence of an intensive mixed farm company, which was created by combining arable farming and livestock farming. As a consequence, revenues increased and the population grew, increasing space for each household. Enterprising children moved to new settlements.


Leaving the Region

It has been suggested that leaving the settlements in Anatolia was the result of a climate change that had the multiple negative consequences. First, there was global warming after the last ice age that led to a significant rise in sea level, pushing coastal inhabitants inland. This was exacerbated by the associated breakthrough of the Bosphorus, which greatly increased the level of the Black Sea, where many coastal inhabitants were also driven inland.

Post glacial sea level rise

Post glacial sea level rise (3a)

There was also the the Misox oscillation. For three centuries the region became hotter and drier. Agriculture and livestock declined and as a result the yields of agriculture decreased.

The G population left the region and migrated in all directions, The most western groups went westward to Europe, the eastern groups in the Zagros went eastward to central and southern Asia and northward to the Caucasus and the Russian steppes, southward to the Arabian peninsula and back to Africa to Egypt and Libya and probably already then to Morocco and took with them seed and their livestock.

G1 which probably lived somewhat separated apart moved eastward to the Indus and from there North to Kazakhstan.

The G2a1 groups went to the Caucasus. The G2a2 and subgroups spread westward to Turkey and Europe, G2b went eastward to central and southern Asia.

The beginning of expansion to Europe was already before 8500 BP to three regions in west Anatolia: the lake area near Antalya, the coasts on both sides of the Aegean sea, and in the Northwest of Anatolia around the Marmara Sea at Barcin Höyük.

In these regions the G2a2a and the G2a2b groups lived still together and from here they entered Europe about 8000 ybp and they did that through two different routes, one by sea, the Mediterranean group and one across the country, the continental group.

G2a2 migration

Migration Routes of G2a2a-PF3147. the Continental with LBK Culture and Cardial ware culture.

Europe-diffusion-farming-Eupedia_europe_ G.G2a

Diffusion of farming through Europa. The Hesbaye is the round area beneath Holland, tinted in the color of 5800 - 5300 years BCE.


Old clades of Haplogroup G largely disappear from Europe

In the Bronze Age, haplogroup G suddenly becomes rare in Europe. Shortly after 5,000 ybp new peoples came from the Pontic-Caspian steppes with new cultures, as Corded Ware and the Bell Beaker culture. They had a new Y-DNA namely R1a and R1b.

This peoples caused the downfall of the agricultural population of whom the men had haplogroup G. The men were almost certainly killed. and the the women divided among themselves. This is evidenced by the disappearance of the G Y-DNA from the Europa, while the mt DNA present only decreased moderately. G people survived in some remote areas as on the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean Sea.


New G subgroups in Europe

G-L140, especially its subgroups G-U1 and G-L13, which clearly were part of the new peoples with the R groups of the Pontic-Caspian steppes and who probably had already lived there with them on the Pontic-Caspian steppes appeared in Western Europe. Their descendants still live there and from there they have spread to new continents along with the other Europeans.

The hunter-gatherers of Haplogroup I have largely managed to survive.


The haplogroup G distibution.
The haplogroup G distibution

The haplogroup G distibution. (4)


haplogroup G frequencies and genetic variances

Geographical distribution map of haplogroup G Frequencies and Genetic Variances (Vp) (4a)


The presence in each country of Haplogroup G in decreasing levels


70 %


40 %

The entire Caucasus, Kabardinia, Azerbaijan

30 %

Kazakhstan, the Kazakh Argyns, who make 20 % of the population, are the main founders of the Kazakh khanate in the 15th century. They have the highest levels of G in the world, 67%, mostly G1a. (5)

20 %

Catalonia (Sp.), and Ibiza, the Kalash people in Northern-Pakistan

20 %

Iran, Armenia, Cyprus, Crete, Croatia, the Gagauzes in Bulgaria (5a)

8-16 %

Corsica, Sardinia (6)

11 %

Turkey, Israel both Jews and Palestinians.

10 %

Italy increasing to the South: Northern-Italy 6%, Middle-Italy 9%, South-Italy 14%. (7)

10 %

Tirol (Austria) of whom 75% have G2a2b2a1b-L497, the dominant European clade. (8)

10 %

Egypt. (9)

8 %

Liege, Namur and Limburg. (16)

7,3 %

Czech Republic, Romania. (12)

5-6 %

Spain. (13)

5 %

Belgium and Bulgaria. (16), (14)

4,8 %

Netherlands. (15)

4,1 %

Western-Europe, Berbers (Morocco) (17)

3-4 %

Poland: Slowakians: 4,9; Bavarians 3,2; Meckelenb. 1,5; Kociewie 0,5 (18)

2,6 %

UK, Northern-Europe, Hungary and Russia

1-2 %


The extremely high concentration of Haplogroup G around the Caucasus is noteworthy, especially in Northern-Ossetia-Alania.

It is assumed that there was an ancient European core population which belonged to Haplogroup G, but which was later repressed by Neolithic newcomers from other Haplogroups, particularly by haplogroup R1b. The G clades among the steppe peoples of southern Russia are a later replenishment.

In Europe G comprises 5% of the population, in France and the Benelux this is about 4%.

In Belgium, the presence of Haplogroup G, is about 10% higher then in the Netherlands, and there is a clear difference between the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands: Belgium is 4,1%, but the Netherlands is 3,7%, with most of these being found in the southern part of the country.


Haplogroup G trees

Haplogroup G tree
Haplogroup G2a1 tree Haplogroup G2b tree
G-PF3147 tree
G2a1a + G2a2b tree


Ancient G DNA

Boncuklu Höyük is a 10,500 year old village, one of the oldest in the world, on the high Anatolian plateau of Central Turkey. The remains of three men have been found here, one belonging to pre-G2a2b2b-PF3359* and two were G2a2b2b2-PH488, all dating to circa 8300-7950 BCE.

At Chogha Golan in the Zagros mountains in West Iran, is found in the Westmeh Cave the oldest G2b-M3115, dated to 7455-7082 BCE.

The archaeological site of Asikli Höyük in Cental Cappadocia was settled in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, around 8,200 BC`. Here is found G2a2b1a-P303*, dated to 7870–7600 BCE.

At Çatal höyük is found G2a2a1a3a-BY133179, dated to 6825–6635 BCE

At Tepecik Ciftlik is found G2a2a2-Z36520 dated to 6635-6475 cal BCE (7630±30 BP beta).


A spreadsheet with All archaeological G you wil find at: Ancient G-M201s with sequencing.

Ancient Gs


Haplogroup G-M201 Tree

This is an attempt to merge the ISOGG tree and the YFull tree


G1-M342/M285, formed 26.000 ybp, TMRCA 18,600 ybp.

G1a-CTS11562, formed 18400 ybp, TMRCA 14400 ybp.

G1a1-BY1124/GG353, formed 14500 ybp, TMRCA 13200 ybp, Russians, Saudis.

G1a1a-Z3353, formed 13200 ybp, TMRCA 13200 ybp, Indians, Yemens, Slovakians.

G1a1a1-L1324, formed 13200 ybp, TMRCA 4800 ybp and is found among Ashkenazi Jews, Bulgarians, Kazakhs, Mongols, Kuwaitis, Italians.


G1a1a1a1-L201, formed 4800 ybp, TMRCA 475 ybp, Russians and Ashkenazi Jews of Europa.

G1a1a1a1a~FGC39025, Kazachs and Ashkenazi Jews of Europa.

G1a1a1a1b-Z45734, Ashkenazi Jews of Europa.

G1a1a1a2-GG1, Mongols in Mongolia, formed probaly 5,000 ybp..

G1a1a1a3-Y14914, formed 5000 ybp. Kuwait, Syria.

G1a1a1a3a-Y15524, formed 1700 ybp. Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1a3a1-Z35053, formed 600 ybp. Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1a3a2-Z35057, formed 600 ybp. Kuwaitis.

G1a1a1a3b-Z35061, formed 1700 ybp. Syrians.

G1a1a1a4-444585, formed 1700 ybp. Syrians.


G1a1a1b-L1323, formed 4800 ybp, TMRCA 750 ybp Kazakhs, Argyn.

G1a1a1b1-GG93/Y12744, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1b2-GG90, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1b3-GG86, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1b4-FGC31603, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1b5-GG76, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1b6-GG81, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a1b7-GG65, formed 750ybp, Kazakhs.

G1a1a2-GG362/Z3189, formed 13300 ybp, TMRCA 9400 ybp, archaeological find in Seh Gabi, Iran, cal. 5100 bp, now in Iran, Slovakia, Germany, Turkey, India (Gujaratis), n.e. Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Bashkirs of s.w. Russia, Kazakhs, Argyn, Yemenis, Arabs.

G1a1a2a-Z26332, formed 9.400 years ybp.

G1a1a2a1-Z31483, Slovaks, formed 9.400 ybp.

G1a1a2b-Z31492, Gujaratis of India, formed 9.300 years ybp.

G1a1b-GG313, formed 13300 ybp, TMRCA 9600 ybp, Saudi Arabia.

G1a1b1-GG167, formed 9600 ybp, TMRCA 8500 ybp, Saudi Arabia.

G1a1b1a-GG162, GG169, formed 8500 ybp, TMRCA 5800 ybp, Brazil, Iran.

G1a1b1a1-GG157, GG164, formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 375 ybp, Bashkirs of Bashkortostan.

G1a1b1a1a-GG153, formed 375 ybp, Bashkir of Bashkortostan

G1a1b1a1b-GG155, formed 375 ybp, Bashkir of Bashkortostan


G1a1b1b-Z44602, formed 8100 ybp.

G1a1b2-GG272, formed 9200 ybp, TMRCA, 6900 ybp, Quwaitis, Saudis, Arabs. Kuwait.

G1a1b2a-GG270, GG285, Y159025, formed 6900 ybp, TMRCA 6900 ybp, Saudy Arabia.

G1a1b2a1-GG265, formed 6900 ybp, TMRCA 2900 ybp, Armenians Saudis.

G1a1b2a1a-GG266 formed 2900 ybp, TMRCA 1200 ybp, Armenia

G1a1b2a1a1-GG264 formed 1200 ybp, TMRCA 950 ybp, Armenia

G1a1b2a1a1a-GG245 formed 950 ybp, Armenia

G1a1b2a1a1b-GG232 formed 950 ybp, Armenia

G1a1b2a1a1c-GG260 formed 950 ybp, Armenia

G1a1b2a1a1c1-GG258 formed 650 YBP, Armenia

G1a1b2a1a1c2-GG250 formed 650 YBP, Armenia









G1a2-F2885, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 8100 ybp, lebanese, English, French, Spanish, Nepalese, Brahui, a Han Chinese.

G1a2a-BY21302, Z45019, formed 8100 ybp, TMRCA 7900 ybp, UK.

G1a2a1~A454,2/ZS1981.2, FGC7391.2, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp, .

G1a2a2~Z45001, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.

G1a2b~BY184767, formed ybp, TMRCA ybp.

G1b-L830, formed 18400 ybp, TMRCA 8400 ybp, Saudi Arabia, Peoples rep China, Anhui.

G1b1-Z17874, formed 8500 ybp. TMRCA 2900 ybp.

G1b1a-Z18606, Belarus, Bulgaria, Ashkenazi Jews of Europa, 5.000 years.

G1b1b-Z30744, formed 2900 ybp, TMRCA 550 ybp, Kuwaitis, Quataris.

G1b2-BY165821, formed 18600 ybp.


G2-P287, formed 25,200 ybp, TMRCA 20,800 ybp probably in the fertile crescent.
One P287* has been found in a survey in Anatolia. (18a) T. Kandell said about this: This individual is only 35% of the way to a full G-P287, so perhaps the tMRCA of this new branch is about 24,000 ybp.

G2a-P15, formed 20800 ybp, TMRCA 18000 ybp and started expanding after the Ice Ages, 14,500 ybp. Of the European archaelogical DNA 20% has these original clade; together with his subgroups they make 60% of the Earliest Neolithic European DNA.

G2a1-FGC7535/SK1106/Z6552 (former L293), formed 18000 ybp, TMRCA 18000 ybp its subgroups account for 50% to 70 % of the men in the Middle-Caucasus, and is also found among small groups of East Europeans, mostly Ashkenazic Jews and Lebanese Maronite Christians.

G2a1a-FGC595/Z6553, formed 15000 ybp, TMRCA 9500 yb (herein or in subgroups) Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Bashkirs, Kumyks, Karachays, Tatars, some among Hungarians, Czechs, and Bulgarians and Kalash and Brahui.

G2a1a1-FGC693/Z6653, formed 9500 ybp, TMRCA 6700 ybp, Lebanon, 12% of the people in the North and Northwest of Georgia with a TMRCA of 7,500 BP, is of Neolithic origin in the Caucasus. spread probably with the Christian Ossetians eastward to China and Mongolia.

G2a1a1a-FGC715/Z6679, formed 6700 ybp, TMRCA 6000 ybp.

G2a1a1a1-Z6635, Z6692 formed 6000 ybp, TMRCA 6000 yb.

G2a1a1a1a-Z6638, formed 3,900 ybp, in Ossetians, Armenians, Abkhazians, Georgians, Karachays, Lezgins of Dagestan, English, Moldavians, old 4.5 ky.

G2a1a1a1a1-FGC713/Z6677, in Jasz.


G2a1a1a1a1a1-FGC750/Z758, formed 6000 ybp, TMRCA 4300 yb, Ossetia, Turkey, Georgia.

G2a1a1a1a1a1a-FGC724/Z7940, formed 4400 ybp, TMRCA 4300 ybp, in subbranches are people from Trabzon who are likely originally of Kartvelian "Sanni" (Zan) origin and Svans.



G2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1-BY169049, Ossetians.



G2a1a1a1a1a1a2-FGC719, formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 750 ybp, one Libyan and one Bulgarian.

G2a1a1a1a1a1a2a-FGC668, Ossetians and Georgians.

G2a1a1a1a1a1a2a1-A199/B300, formed 750 ybp, TMRCA 750 ybp

G2a1a1a1a1a1a2a2-B375, Ossetians.

G2a1a1a1a1a1a2a3-FGC690/GG332, formed 750 ybp, TMRCA 750 ybp, Ossetians.



G2a1a1a1a1a1a3-Z40550, Northeastern coast of Turkey and an Abkhazian.

G2a1a1a1a1a1a3a~L267.2, Z31303


G2a1a1a1a1a1b-Z31459, Y29585, formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp, Georgian.


G2a1a1a1a1a1b1a-Z45053, formed 2200 ybp, TMRCA 2100 ybp, Russia, Chechenskaya respublica.

G2a1a1a1a1a1b1a1~Z31460, Z31463

G2a1a1a1a1a1b1a2~Z45048, Z45049

G2a1a1a1a1a1b1b~Y138630, Y138647

G2a1a1a1a1a1b2~Z44455, Z44456

G2a1a1a1a1a1b3~Z44788, Z44789

G2a1a1a1a1a2-FGC1047/Z7952 English

G2a1a1a1a1a2a-FGC1048/Z7953, (H.)


G2a1a1a1a1b1-FGC1048/Z7953, English.

G2a1a1a1a2-CTS8481.1, Moldavians.


G2a1a1a2-FGC1159,FGC1160, Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Russia (Karachays, Lezgins) .


G2a1a1a2a1-FGC1107, Ashkenazis.

G2a1a1a2b-BY186510, Karachays.

G2a1a1a2b1-B296/Z31216, Karachays.

G2a1a1a2b2-BY186209, Karachays.

G2a1a1a2c-BY21464, Lezgins of Dagestan.

G2a1a1a2c1-Z29313, Lezgins of Dagestan.

G2a1a1a2c1a-Z29311, Lezgins of Dagestan.

G2a1a1a2c1b-Y47534, Lezgins of Dagestan.

G2a1a1a2c2-Z45585, Lezgins of Dagestan.

G2a1a1b-Z31455, 4.5 KY.

G2a1a1b1-BY65507, Z31456, 4.5 KY.

G2a1a1b2-Z25119.2, Y7015, 4.5 KY.





G2a1a2-Z17774, formed 9500 ybp, TMRCA 6100 ybp, Italy, England, Pakistan (Punjabis).

G2a1a2a-Z17775, Punjabis of Pakistan, Spaniards, Italians. the Dutch family Pennings having a 13th century ancestor van der Straetten in Oirschot, Brabant and Italians, 7.0 KY.

G2a1a2a1-Z31475, Punjabis of Pakistan.


G2a1a2a1b-Z39928 Italians.

G2a1a2b-Z31451, English, 7.0 KY.

G2a1a3-Z31464, Z35444, formed 9500 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp, Netherlands, Germans.

G2a1a3a-Z35447,Germans, 3.0 KY.

G2a1a3a1-Z35443,Germans, 3.0 KY.




G2a1b-Z30702, Germans, age 16,200 years.


G2a2-L1259, age circa 18,200 yrs, from which two lines with a TMRCA of 17.000 ybp: G2a2a-PF3147, and G2a2b-L30.


G2a2a-PF3147, formed 17.800 ybp, TMRCA 12.800 ybp ,is the smallest of the two subgoups of G2a2. It has with its subgroups 10% of the European G. It arose round 16.800 years ago probably in what later became the first Neolithic areas of Anatolia and spread with other G groups, G-L30 and subgroups, ca 8000 ybp mostly around the Mediterranean along the South and the North coasts and the Islands as Sardinia and Corsica, and in the Balcans and Bulgaria. and is still found now in low percentages, and eastwards to Iran and Azerbaijan. However it is absent in the North Caucasus.
G-G/PF3147* is still found in Turkey, Greece, France, Britain, Germany and Bahrain and in LBK Neolithic sites in Germany, but also in Central Asians, Uzbeks.

G2a2a_PF3147 and its clades, are also treated on the Clade G2a2a page of this website.

G2a2a1-PF3148, formed circa 12,800 ybp, TMRCA 12,100 ybp,; old archaeological finds , in Halberstadt in Germany circa 7000 y old, Calvados in France 6.400 ybp, Oberbipp in Switzerland 5.300 ybp, Dlinnaya Polyana in Russia, 5.200 ybp, Alto de la Huesera in Alava, Basque country in Spain, 4.950 ybp. Today in Wales (Roberts) and Pakistan.

G2a2a1a-PF3177, formed 11,500 ybp. PF3177* is in Italies Retic Alps, Sardinia, an English American and an Egyptian. Archaeological finds in Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, France.


G2a2a1a1-FGC6669, formed 11.800 ybp, TMRCA 9.900 ybp. It looks that this clade did not take part in the entry into Central and Western Europe in the beginning of the Neolithic, but remained in the eastern region of the Mediterranean. In Roman Time they assumely spread over the Roman Empire.
One known FGC6669* is an Italian from Sardinia.

G2a2a1a1-FGC6619, FGC6663, formed 10.000 ybp, TMRCA 8,200 ybp, one known FGC6663* is from the Krasnodar district (Краснодарский край) in the Northern Caucasus in Russia.

G2a2a1a1~Y14935, formed 8.200 ybp. TMRCA 8,200 ybp, One known Y14935* is an Saudi Arabian.


G2a2a1a1a-FGC58131, formed 8,200 years before present, archaeological finds 2.700 ybp in Swat Valley Pakistan, nowadys one Armenian family.

G2a2a1a1a1-M286, formed 7,000 ybp, TMRCA 4,400 ybp, now in Turkey, Georgia, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Armenia, Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), France (Strasbourg) England and Scotland.

G2a2a1a1a1~FGC58127 formed 4,400 ybp. TMRCA 3,300 ybp


G2a2a1a1a1a1~FGC58118 Suffolk, England.

G2a2a1a1a1a2~FGC59473 formed 3,000 ybp, TMRCA 1200 ybp., Syria and Lebanon.

G2a2a1a1a1a2a~FGC59474 Lebanon (E.C.)

G2a2a1a1a1a2b~BY193531 Oman (Q).

G2a2a1a1a1b-Z43081 England.

G2a2a1a1a1b1-Z43083 England, formed 3300 ybp, TMRCA 600 yb.

G2a2a1a1a1b1a-Z43083 BY123198, Y70685, formed 600 ybp, England.

G2a2a1a1a1b1b-Z43083 FGC60946, England, formed 600 ybp,.




G2a2a1a1b~FGC6713/Y14984,formed 8200 ybp, TMRCA 8200 ybp .

G2a2a1a1b1-FGC6618, formed 8,200 ybp, TMRCA 1300 ybp, in these sprote later three families during the transition period from Merovingian to Karolingian time in the pagus Hasbania, now Namur (Belgium) and Maastricht (Netherlands).

G2a2a1a1b1~FGC6664,FGC6667 TMRCA 7.000

G2a2a1a1b1a-FGCC6629/FGC6634, formed 1,300 ybp, TMRCA 325, genealogical 530 ybp.

G2a2a1a1b1a1-FGC6628, formed 460 ybp, Dutch (Marres).

G2a2a1a1b1a2-Y89939, formed 460 ybp, Dutch (Mares).

G2a2a1a1b1b~FGC34750, formed 1,300 ybp, Belgium (Nolet).

G2a2a1a1b1c~FGC42426, formed 1,300 ybp, Belgium (Slootmaekers).


G2a2a1a1b2~BY157359, formed 7,500 ybp, Poland.

G2a2a1a1b3-Y93879, formed 7,500 TMRCA 5,400 ybp, Italian and Saoudi Arabian.


G2a2a1a2-L91, formed 11,800 ybp, TMRCA 11,800 ybp. In Greece archaelogical finds are in Kleitos dated 6,100 ybp and in Bulgaria 4,759 ybp. L91* has an Italian from Salerno.


These clades spread round the Mediterranean region into North Africa, Egypt (now 4%), Libya, Tunisia, the Northern Berbers of Morocco, the Royal family of Morocco, the Alouï, assumed to be descended from Ali ibn Talib, nephew and son-in-law of the prophet Mohammed. Several sultanates, including the current sultans of Perlis in Malaysia, are branches of this lineage. (19)

This clade is now also found among the Bakhthiari nomads of Iran and, in Northern India, an Uyghur from China, in Czechia it is 3%. Some in the Netherlands, Germany Alsace-Lorraine, Britain and Scandinavia and Maharashtra Brahmins.

G2a2a1a2a-Z6484, Z6488, FGC7739, archaeological find in three individuals in Barcin Höyük, Turkey, 8,300 ybp, one find Bulgaria from 7.900 ybp, one in a find in Croatia from 4.700 ybp; today in Iranians and in an Armenian.

G2a2a1a2a1-PF3239, Z6128, Z6490, formed 10,900 ybp, TMRCA 10,000 ybp in an archaeological find in a Bell Beaker individual in Hungary from 3,700 ybp, now in Arnenians, Sardinians and a Dutchman in Limburg.

G2a2a1a2a1a-L166, formed 7000 ybp, TMRCA 6800 ybp, came in Europe probably with the Bell Beaker culture and is now found in Bulgaria, Germany in Frankenland and Bavaria (Krause family), in Greece on Lemnos, in Italy on Sicily and Sardinia and in France on Corsica (20), and in the Pundjab of Pakistan.

G2a2a1a2a1a1-FGC5672, formed 6500 ybp, TMRCA 6100 ybp, found in the mummy of the Ötzthal in Tirol, Austria, a man who lived there 5,200 ybp, in the Chalcolithic, the copper Age, popular named Ötzi.
Present in subgroups, located in Italy, Sardinia, Germany, Spain, Pakistan, and (U.K?)

G2a2a1a2a1a1a-Z6211, FGC5722/Z6495, formed 6100 ybp, TMRCA 5000 ybp, Italy, Germany, Czech rep., Sardinians, Germans and in Punjabis (descendants of soldiers of Alexandros the Great of Macedonia?) with a TMRCA 5000 ybp.

reconstruction of a man found in a glacier the Alps, Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter

Reconstruction of a man found in a glacier the Alps, Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum, Bozen; Foto Ochsenreiter

G2a2a1a2a1a1a1-FGC5697, formed 3000 ybp, Germans and English (Kent)



G2a2a1a2a1a1b~Z6208 Sardinia.

G2a2a1a2a1a1b1-Z31442 TMRCA 3750 years, Italia, Pundjab in Pakistan.






G2a2a1a2a1a1c-BY64250, Banu Kanaan Tribe.


G2a2a1a2a1b-Z6802, PF3230, 2% of all Sardinians.

G2a2a1a2a1b1-Z6183, Sardinians.


G2a2a1a2a1b1a1-F3940, Sardinians.

G2a2a1a2a1b1a2-Z31447, Hispanics.



G2a2a1a2a1b2-PF3144. TMRCA 2000 ybp, Puerto Rico, Sardinians.








G2a2a1a2a1b2c3b-PF6833, Z6332.



G2a2a1a2a1b2d1a-PF6837, Z6852.




G2a2a1a2a2-FGC2315, 8.800 years old, archaeological find from 8,200 BP in Barcin Höyük, Narmara Region NW Turkey; offspring now in Germany, Sardinia Italy, Tunisia, France (Perez), Georgia (Mamisashvili).

G2a2a1a2a2a-Z6773, Z6301. TMRCA 7.800 ybp. already in Sardinia.

G2a2a1a2a2a1-Z31429, Y140815, 6,000 years old, TMRCA 2,500 ybp

G2a2a1a2a2a1a~Z31428, Germans, (Klein, Cline).


G2a2a1a2a2a1b1-Y85685, TMRCA 400 years, German (Vonderlack), Dutch (Maryniak, Albers).

G2a2a1a2a2a2-Z6175. Sardinia

G2a2a1a2a2b-FGC2308, Z12211. formed 10,200 ybp, TMRCA 3,500y.

G2a2a1a2a2b1~FGC2281/Z12219, Tunisians (Per.) formed 3,500 ybp.

G2a2a1a2a2b2~BY171991, Irish (O'N.), formed 3,500 ybp.

G2a2a1a2a2c~CTS2080.1. Sicilia, Tirol, Austria, and Denmark.

G2a2a1a2b-Z42562, Z42562, Z42572, Z42582, TMRCA 8,200 ybp, archaelogical Find at Kozani in Greece, 6000 ybp and from Neolithic in Grotta Continenza Roma, 7.500 ybp. Nowadays Germany, Chile.

G2a2a1a2b1-Z42570, formed 8,200 ybp.

G2a2a1a2b1a~PH97, Iranian Bakhtiari.

G2a2a1a2b1b~Z42554, Europe (Fau.).

G2a2a1a2b2~Z45931, formed 8,200 ybp, TMRCA 3,300 ybp, England.

G2a2a1a2b2a~Z45935, formed 3,300 ybp, (L.) England.

G2a2a1a2b2b~A20616.2, Z46164, formed 3,300 ybp, (H.) England.


G2a2a1a3-FGC34625, FGC34725, formed 10900 ybp, TMRCA 9400 ybp, an archaeological finds in Çatalhöyük, Anatolia, 6825-6635 BP; in Cueva de los Murciélagos near Cordoba in Castilia, Spain, 7245-7025 BP, in Portugal, 3500-2000 BP.

G2a2a1a3a-FGC34621, English and Georgians,

G2a2a1a3a-BY133179 formed 10.500 ybp, English. Archaeological finds in Spain 7140 ybp, Portugal 4370 ybp and Serbia dated 6500 ybp.


G2a2a1a4-PF3222, 13.200 years.

G2a2a1a5-BY182515, Y159259, 13.200 years.


G2a2a1b-FGC34451, formed around 11.400 ybp and split a millennium later in subgroups. Is found among the Early Neolithic Farmers of Halberstadt-Sonntagsfeld in Germany 7,211-6,963 cal ybp and in archaeologic find (klei10) in Kleitos Greece 6.100 ybp.

G2a2a1b1-FGC34387, formed around 10.900, in Dravidian-speaking Brahui cattle herders and the Punjabi-speaking Pakistani (Khan).

G2a2a1b2-FGC35165, TMRCA ca.2000 ybp.

G2a2a1b2a-FGC35170, Welsh (R.)

G2a2a1b2b-BY186480, Welsh (J.)


G2a2a2-Z36520, formed 12.800 ybp, TMRCA 12.000 ybp. At Tepecik Ciftlik in Turkey is an archaeological found dated to 6635-6475 BCE, and one from Sappali Tepe in Uzbekistan dated to 2000-1600 BCE.

G2a2a2a-Z45970, Z45976, formed 10.600 ybp, TMRCA 10.600 ybp. TMRCA 6.800 ybp, Turkey and Algeria.

G2a2a2a1-B376, Uzbek Jew.

G2a2a2a2-Z45965, Algeria Arab.

G2a2a2b-Z36525, formed 11900 ybp, TMRCA 10000 yb.

G2a2a2b1-BY37102, Y106682, formed 10.000 ybp, TMRCA 6000 ybp, North Africa Berber, Bahrain.

G2a2a2b1a1-Y83453, Z36522, France.

G2a2a2b1b~Z46081, Bahrain.

G2a2a2b1c~BY84930, (H.).

G2a2a2b2-Z45667, TMRCA 4200 ybp, Ukrainians.

G2a2a2b3-Z45700, formed 10.000 ybp, TMRCA 3.000 ybp

G2a2a2b3a-Z45690, formed 3000 ybp, TMRCA 2600 ybp.


G2a2a2b3a1a~BY37106, formed 2600 ybp, TMRCA 2200 ybp

G2a2a2b3a1a1~Z45715, formed 2200 ybp, TMRCA 500 ybp


G2a2a2b3a1a1a1~Z34514.2, TMRCA 400 ybp, Puerto-Ricans from Spain.


G2a2a2b3a1a1b~BY207765, BY207748.


G2a2a2b3a1a1c1~FT18864, FT19555, Y164204.

G2a2a2b3a1b~BY70232, Romanian (Tug.).

G2a2a2b3a2~BY192915, Greece (Pap.).

G2a2a2b3b~Z46011, English (Tur.).


G2a2b-L30/PF3267/S126, formed 16700 ybp, TMRCA 14400 ybp, is the largest of the two subgroups of G2a in what later became the first Neolithic areas of Anatolia. In the Neolithic this clade is found in 60% of the Europeans, nowadays in only 5% of them. G-L30* is in Greece and Croatia and in some Uralic-speaking Mordvins from Russia. G-L30 is divided into two clusters:
A. G2a2b1-M406, entered Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean,
B. G2a2b2-P303, spread through the Danube valley to western Europe as far as in the United Kingdom, and south to the Iberian Peninsula and the western Mediterranean coasts and islands, where these two clusters meet. (21)

The predominantly Southern European, Mediterranean and Levant groups.

G2a2b1-M406/PF3285, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 8700 ybp, originated in Turkey 14.900 ybp, and entered Italy probably about 5,000 ybp. This is the clade of Asia Minor and Southern Europe. Of the G men in Iraq, Turkey, Greece and the Balearic Islands, about 50% belong to this clade; in Georgia, 25% (G2a1a is almost 8%); in Italy, 20%; in Spain and the Netherlands, 15%; in Switzerland, 8%; Iran, 6%; and in Poland and UK, 4%.
Split in three groups presumably nearly at the same time probably in the Upper Euphrates Valley at the end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), when the climate became much hotter and drier around 8400-8200 ybp.
G2a2b1* is found in a Lebanese chistian.

G2a2b1-M3310/PF3299, Mediterranean, Greeks, Italians, Lebanese, Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijans, Turks. Austrians



G2a2b1a1a-L14/U16, age 8,200 years, in Middle Easterners, Italians, Sardinians, English, French, Netherlands, Qatari.


G2a2b1a1b-Z17887/Y6222, formed 7800 ybp, TMRCA 6600 ybp, Turkey.

G2a2b1a1b1-Z17886, formed 6600 ybp, TMRCA 6400 ybp, Turkey.

G2a2b1a1b1a-Z37368, formed 6400 ybp, TMRCA 5500 ybp. Germany, Italian.

G2a2b1a1b2-L645, PH942, formed 6600 ybp, TMRCA 5500 ybp, Turkey.

G2a2b1a1b2a-Y134757, formed 5500 ybp, TMRCA 5000 ybp, Turkey (Armenians, Swiss, and Germans (?)).

G2a2b1a2-M3302, Turkey (Armenians), Pakistan (Pashtuns), Italy, U.K..



G2a2b1b-PF3293, age 8,700 ybp, Middle East, Sardinia, Kazakhstan (originally from Ukraine), Palestinians and Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b1b1-PF3296/PF3316, age 7,300 years, in Iran, Kazakhstan (Russia), Druzes, Italians. Sardinians, in the Netherlands, Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b1b1a Z30795.


G2a2b1b1a1a~PF3286, Sultans Ba'Alawis of Yemen, Sultans of Siak on Sumatra-Indonesia, Richard III of England, so probablement les Maisons de Plantagenet et d'Anjou.




G2a2b1b1a2-S11415, Sardinians.


G2a2b1b1a2a1-Z6029, Malta (?)

G2a2b1b1a2a1a-Z31414, Sardinians.



G2a2b1b1a2a2-S9591, formed 5300 ybp, TMRCA 3800 ybp.



G2a2b1c-Z6340. Sardinia.

G2a2b1d-CTS8450/S4387, Palestinian territory.

The predominantly central and western European groups

G2a2b2-CTS2488, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 14400 ybp, most of the Europeans of west and central Europe belong to this clade. It is also found among the Brahmins in India. It probably emerged from a population of hunters and gatherers in the Russian steppes. (22)

G2a2b2a-P303, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 11600 ybp, the majority of the G men in Europe, belong to his subgroups. Low rates are found in Iran, Pakistan and in the Middle East. It has also been seen among the Brahmins, in India and with an certain haplotype in Ashkenazi Jews. (23)

G2a2b2a1-L140/S316, formed 11600 ybp, TMRCA 10900 ybp, the whole group with clades is the dominant G group in Europe, present in almost 80%, of G men. The first ones came into Europa probably around 8,500 ybp, archaeological find, 8000-7500 ybp of Koros neolitic in Törökszentmiklos Tiszapüspöki Karanycs, Hungary. Their number is now approaching 7% of the population in some European countries, however the average is about 3%. It is present in small amounts in some parts in France at 5% and in Italy it reaches 9%. There is an Ashkenazi cluster in northwestern Europe. G-L140* are in The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, the Carpathian Mountains, in Palestinians, Saudi Arabia and in the Dravidan speaking Brahii. (25)

G2a2b2a1a-PF3346 archaeolgical find of Baden culture in Budapest Hungary 5300-4850 ybp; a Rajput in India.

G2a2b2a1a1-PF3345 is 10,400 years old


G2a2b2a1a1a1-U1/Z6779, is presumably 10,000 years old. The early years of U1 seem to have been during the hunter-gatherer period, before historical records were kept, so little can be said about it until scientists are able to identify U1 subgroups in ancient skeletons from that time period. The more recent aspects of the historical period are covered in the discussions of the subgroups.
The Hazara DYS393=15 occurs within the tribal group consisting of Shia Muslim men of central Afghanistan who are distinctive for their heavy intermingling with the C3 Genghis Khan, group which undoubtedly came to Afghanistan with the Mongol invasion. It is possible that the Mongol invasion brought these men from somewhere in southwest Russia, since other tribal groups in Afghanistan lack similar G members in the sampling. G2a2b2a1a1a-U1* is still in Italy.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a-L13/U13/L78, is about 10,000-11,000 years old. In an archaeological find in Barcin Höyük N-W Turkey dated about 8300 ybp. In its subclades, TMRCA 4800 ybp, it is found among Germans, French, Swiss, northern Italians, UK an Ukraine, Belarus, Western Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, and in small amounts outside Europe in Iranian Azeri, Arabs, Druze of the Levant, Palestinians in Lebanon and Syria and Sephardic Jews.
The Ashkenazi Jews have DYS588=13 and often DYS568=9 as well.
G2a2b2a1a1a1-L13/U13/S13* in Armenia and Italy.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1-CTS9909/Z2022, formed 4900 ybp, TMRCA 3900 ybp, they most likely came in Western Europe in the Bronze Age, together with the R1a and RIb population. Most known samples come from Europe. The percentage in G samples in Europe is: Germany 16%; Italy 11%; the Netherlands 10%; France 10%; Poland 9%; Spain 9%; Ireland 6%; England 5%; Switzerland 4%. Some Arabs from Bahrain, Persian Jews from Afghanistan and Morocco berbers.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a-FGC965/Z6759, FGC995/Z6758, 4,000 years old, has a heavy concentration in Europe.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1-FGC998/Z6764, has a heavy concentration in Europe also in the Netherlands, in Cyprus, Bahrain, Arabs, Algerians, Berbers in Morocco. (Meh..).



G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a-Z29424, formed 3,600 ybp, TMRCA 3200 ybp, Germany, Swiss (Beyeler), Italy, Italian Alps (Herbet), Cypress. Poland, Jews, Hispanics, Syrians, Kurdish, and Persians.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1-L1263, Z38848, formed 3100 ybp. TMRCA 2500 ybp, Turkeys, UK.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a-Z38846, formed 2500 ybp, TMRCA 1350, Germans, Austrians, Dutch.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1-BY48807, Y19317/Z38847.


G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1-Z38853 formed and TMRCA 1350 ybp, Germans.






G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a2a-Z30781, formed 3.300 ybp, TMRCA 2000, UK.


G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a5-Z39053. formed 3100 ybp, TMRCA 3100 ybp

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a5a-Y57335. formed 3100 ybp, TMRCA 3100 ybp, Circassian, (A.Q.)

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a1a5a1-Y54750. formed 3100 ybp, TMRCA 2500 ybp, German.






G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a2 Z39373.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1a2a Y45819.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a3a2a1 Y57313.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a1b Z42471.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1a5 Z38875.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1b-Z2017. formed 3.500 ybp., Spain, England, Turkey (Jews).

G2a2b2a1a1a1a1b1-Z30718, Swiss.

G2a2b2a1a1a1a2-Z30831, British Isles, Poland.

G2a2b2a1a1a1b~Z32842.2, Italy.


G2a2b2a1a1a2-L1266, formed 10000 ybp, TMRCA 7500 ybp, includes half of the West Caucasians, like the Adyghes, Abkhazians, Circassians, Kipchaks, Abazins and Karbardinians and Georgians.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a-L1264/L1265/L1268, formed 7500 ybp, TMRCA 3500 ybp, they most likely came in Western Europe in the Bronze Age, together with the R1a population, now in Russia (Kabardinians), in the northwestern Caucasus, primarily among the Adyghians, Ossetians, Tetchens and Senkelens of Central Russia and the Urals, and in Hungary.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a1-Z44222, Adyghes

G2a2b2a1a1a2a1a-L654.2, Germans.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2-FGC21495, formed 3500 ybp, TMRCA 3400 ybp, Belgians.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a-S9409, formed 4200 ybp

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a1-FGC21497, Belgians, formed 4.000 ybp.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2a2-Z31275, Kabardinians, formed 4.000 ybp.

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2b-Z30715, Russians, formed 3400 ybp, TMRCA 3000 ybp

G2a2b2a1a1a2a2c-FGC21497, Belgians, formed 4.200 ybp.

G2a2b2a1a1a2b-PH1780, 1950 years old, Georgians, Armenians Iranian Azeris, UK and some Germans.

G2a2b2a1a1a2c~Z6153, Sardinia.




G2a2b2a1a1a4~SK1154. Palestinians



G2a2b2a1a1b-L497/S317/CTS1899/PF6851/Z738, formed 10600 ybp, TMRCA 7200 ybp, This is the largest European subgroup, to which half of the European G, belongs. It seems that G-L497, which is one of the most "European" of haplogroups, spread out from Western Anatolia (where it's found in small numbers) to the Danube Basin with the First Farmers, around 8400-7800 ybp. So far, the earliest branches of L497 are found in Italy and the Netherlands. The Anatolian and Aegean L497s are more "derived" (further down the tree in G-Z725), This group is distributed as follows: Tirol 80% of the G samples; Switzerland 75%; Spain, France and Germany 60%; UK 52%, the Netherlands and Italy 44%. They formed the first wave of farmers entering Europe who started the Neolithic, recognizable by the LBK culture.
G2a2b2a1a1b-L497*, an American of Dutch origin in Gelderland.

G-L497 frequenties in Europe. (24a)
G-L497_frequenties in Europe

G2a2b2a1a1b1-Z1815/CTS9737, formed 7300 ybp, TMRCA 6400 ybp, archaeolgical find of Baden culture in Budapest Hungary 3300-2850 BCE.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a-CTS11352/Z1817,, formed 6200 ybp, TMRCA 4600 ybp, is found throughout Western and Central Europe, and especially in Germanic countries.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1-Y7538/Z725, is formed 6400 ybp, TMRCA 4600 ybp.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a-AMM042/CTS2230/Z1823, formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 4600 ybp., Norway, Denmark.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1-L43/S147, formed 4600 ybp, TMRCA 3800 ybb.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a-L42, formed 3800 ybp, TMRCA 3800 ybp. Spain, is found in a Trypillian outlier individual. This branch might have been assimilated by Proto-Indo-Europeans through contact with the Late Trypillian people who moved to the Pontic Steppe and merged with Yamna tribes. It would later have spread around Germanic and Celtic countries alongside haplogroup R1b.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1-Y11074/Z30641, Y10621/Z30642, formed 3800 ybp, TMRCA 3600 ybp. Italia, Switserland, Deutschland, Croatia, Finland.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1a-Y11076, formed 3600 ybp, TMRCA 3600 ybp. Switserland.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1a1-Z27266/F1300.2/M1809.2, Norway.




G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1b-YSC0000033, Z41202.


G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1b1b-Y128028, Serbians.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a1a1c-45255, archaeologic find 300 CE, München Bavaria.



G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2-CTS6796/Z726, CTS35/Z6382.

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a-CTS4803, Z3441, formed 4.600 ybp, TMRCA 3,4000 ybp, Archaelogical finds in Hallstatt culture DA112 Czech Republic ca 2.430 ybp

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a1-S2808, formed 3,400 ybp

G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a2-Z30771, Z16029.2






G2a2b2a1a1b1a1b2-BY27899.1, BY27900,












G2a2b2a1a1b1b-S10458, Italy, France, Poland (nob.), Germany, Netherlands (Gelre, Limb).



G2a2b2a1a1b1b1a1-Z31358, UK.

G2a2b2a1a1b1b1a2-Z31352, Germany.


G2a2b2a1a1c-CTS342, originated about 10,5 KY ago somewhere in Anatolia or the Fertile Crescent. Spread soon in all directions. Is found in archeological remains dated 8,600 ybp in Barcin-Höyük, Northwest Anatolia, near the Sea of Marmara. Is now divided in several subgroups in a quarter of all Arabian G, Saudi. It spread across North Africa and it's found among 13% of Berbers from Jerba Island, Tunisia, Ashkenazi Jews. In Africa. In Europe in Ashkenazi Jews and in Romania, Italy, Sardinia, Iberia. France, Scandinavia and in a Dutchman. There is a small group in the UK Islands, which has a common ancestor from the Middle Ages. and at least in a Han Chinese man from Beijing,

G2a2b2a1a1c1-Z724, N. Italy, Denmark, a tiny number of Ossetians and a Han Chinese from Beijing, and a group in Gao, Mali (Africa) problaby from Morocco.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a-CTS5990/Z1903 The earliest archaelogical find is from Chalcolithic Bulgaria around 6700 ybp, the TMRCA of all G-Z1903s today is at 4800 ybp. Now in Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands, UK., Sardinians and in Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1-CTS7045, formed probably around 4500 ybp.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1a-L640, England, Ireland.



G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b-Z3428, Berbers.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1-Z26414, Berbers.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a-FGC7477/Z6523, Sierra Leone, n.e. Europe (Ashkenazi Jews), Romania, U.K.


G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a1a-FGC248/FGC263, Ashkenazi Jews.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1a1b-FGC31715, exist for abt 1,500 yrs, Ashkenazi Jews.


G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1b-FGC23437, Europeans.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b1b1-Z22644. Austria.

G2a2b2a1a1c3a2-Z6032, Sardinians, French, Sephardim, Ashkenazim and Araite jews, Christian Arabs from Syria and Lebanon, Berbers, Mende people from Sierra Leone, Ossetians, and a Han Chinese from Manchuria.




G2a2b2a1a1c1a1b2c~Z43090. Italian and Irish.

G2a2b2a1a1c1a2-Z40433, Scandinavians.

G2a2b2a1a1c2-FGC12126 formed 9600 ybp, TMRCA 7900 ybp, formed, Han chinese (probably Hui origin)

G2a2b2a1a1c2a-L660 formed 7900 ybp, TMRCA 3700 ybp, England, Poland (nob.), Slovakia.

G2a2b2a1a1c2b-Z16670, formed 7900 ybp, TMRCA 1100 ybp, Saudi Arabia.

G2a2b2a1a1c2b1-Z16713. formed 1100 ybp, TMRCA 850 ybp, Saudi Arabia.

G2a2b2a1a1c2b2-Z31206formed 1100 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp, Saudi Arabia.

G2a2b2a1a1c3-PF4202, split drectly off from G-CTS342 so originated about 10,5 KY ago, Western Europe, Norwegians, France, Italy (M de P.)



G2a2b2a1a1c3a2~Z43844 Italy, Ireland.



G2a2b2a1a1d-S1415, Norwegians.

G2a2b2a1a1e-Z30708, Middle Easterners, 11.000 years.






G2a2b2a1a2~Z38302. Portugal.

G2a2b2a1b-Z30527, 11.000 years. Ukrainians, Iraqi Jews.

G2a2b2a1h-S1415, Iberians, 11.000 years.


G2a2b2a2-M278, Greeks, Spanish, present in the Medieval Jewish population of Spain in the 14th century.

G2a2b2a3-Z6885, archaeological finds have been made in the Anatolian Neolithic from Barcin Höyük in Northwest Turkey from c. 8300 BP (6500-6200 BCE) and the Linear Ceramic Culture - LBK - from Scheltz, Austria, 6950 BP (5500-4500 BCE.
And nowadays in Armenians, Syrians, Al-Muntafiq Tribe of Southern Iraq (Hellenistic Greeks from the Seleucid Empire?) and Arma people an ethnic group in subsaharan Africa in the Niger River, descended from Moroccan and Andalusi invaders of the 16th century.

G2a2b2a3a-Z39310. Archaeological find in a sample dated 7000 BP c. 5040-4850 cal BCE from the El Toro Cave in Antequera near Málaga, South Spain. This Andalusian Early Neolithic culture is thought to have arrived just prior to the Cardial technology.
Italians, Spaniards.




G2a2b2a3b1~ CTS7114.

G2a2b2a3b2~ Z40218.

G2a2b2a4-Z30503, formed 11.700, TMRCA 7400, Brahui, Kalash and Punjabis.

G2a2b2a4a-Z40458. formed 7440 TMRCA, TMRCA 6600, Iraqis and Indians.

G2a2b2a4a1-Z30522. Lyengar Brahmins and Bhargava in India.


G2a2b2a4b-Z31387 Punjabi and Kalash.

G2a2b2a5~ M426, Pakistan (Kalash).

G2a2b2a6~ Z6030, Sardinian Italy.

G2a2b2a7~ PF3912.

G2a2b2a8~ L288.2.

G2a2b2a9~ PF4685/Z2354.


G2a2b2b-PF3359, formed 14400 ybp, TMRCA 12200 ybp, was under the earliest Anatolian Aceramic Farmers of Boncuclu, is found in the following cultures: LBK, Iberia Late Neolithic, Varna Eneolithic, Iberia Chalcolithic, Nuraghic of Sardinia, a Hungarian Scythian of 392 BCE, a Viking Age Sweden from 870 CE, Musawi Sayyid from Iraq, Armenians, Southeastern Turks, and Southwest Iranians, Arabs, Crimean Tatars, a Kabardinian, a Moksha, a couple of Armenians, non-Ashkenazi Jews, a Central Greek, Cretans, Sardinians (here it is 25% of the G), Corsicans, a Hungarian, a German, a Brit, and in the Netherlands.

G2a2b2b1-F1193, formed 12200 ybp, TMRCA 11800 ybp.


G2a2b2b1a1-F872, formed 11500 ybp, TMRCA 8900 ybp, Epipaleolithic Central Anatolia Boncuklu 10,200 ybp.

G2a2b2b1a1a-PF3378, formed 8900 ybp, TMRCA 5800 ybp, Chaloclithic samples from Su Crocefissu Roma 5700 ybp and El Mirador Cave, Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, 4850 ± 150 ybp, Hungary 2480 ± 40 ybp ; nowadays in Italia, Sardinia and Germany.

G2a2b2b1a1a1-PF3420, PF3376, formed 5800 ybp, TMRCA 4800 ybp, Sweden in burial grounds in Sigtuna, 10 to 12th century.






G2a2b2b1a1a2 Z7016, formed 5800 ybp, TMRCA 5200 ybp, Italia and Netherlands.

G2a2b2b1a1a2a Z7022.





G2a2b2b1a1b~-F2572, formed 8900 ybp, TMRCA 8600 yb.

G2a2b2b1a1b1~F2686.2, UK.

G2a2b2b1a1b1a F2214, formed 8600 ybp, TMRCA 8500 ybp.

G2a2b2b1a1b1a1-M310.2, PF2402.2.

G2a2b2b1a1b1a2 ~F807, formed 8500 ybp, TMRCA 2000 ybp, Netherlands.

G2a2b2b1a2 FGC82036

G2a2b2b1b FGC52601

G2a2b2b1b1 Z46065

G2a2b2b1b2 A20535

G2a2b2b1b3 FGC52629

G2a2b2b1b3a FGC52664

G2a2b2b2-PH488, formed 12200 ybp, TMRCA 7900 ybp, Romania Early Neolithic, Armenia, Iran, Palestina.

G2a2b2b2a-CTS1455, PH236, formed 7900 ybp, TMRCA 3500 ybp, Poland.


G2a3b Former notation for what is now G2a2b2


G2b-M3115, formed 21.000 ybp, TMRCA 20.000 ybp.

G2b1-M377, formed 20.0900 ybp, TMRCA 8500 ybp, Lebanese; in subgroups is found in Lachin, Nagorno-Karabakh, in an Armenian noble family, in native Syrian Christians and their Lebanese Maronite descendants, in Italy, Sicily, Spain, Saudis of Khorasani origin, Kars Province Turkey, as well as among Ashkenazi Jews and Pashtuns in Pakistan where it reaches till 14.7% in who claim Israelite ancestry and to be descended from a regular Jewish "Benjaminite" community in Khroasan (Eastern Greater Iran) who converted to Islam at the time of the Mongol Invasion in 1220 CE.

G2b1a-Y12297, BY794, formed 8500 ybp, TMRCA 4700 ybp.


G2b1a1-M283, M3124, formed 4700 ybp, TMRCA 3300 yb, Italian. Pakistani, Afghans.

G2b1a2-Y12975, FGC32402, formed 4,700 ybp, TMRCA 1050 ybp., Ashkenazim, Baltics and Austria.

G2b1a2*-Z45086, formed 1050 ybp, TMRCA 550 ybp, Germany, Israel.

G2b1a2a-Y15861/FGC35913, Ashkenazim.

G2b1a2a1-FGC35915/Y15862/Z35608. Lithuanian Jewish and Belarus who are probably come from France. TMRCA of the parent 1100 ybp.


G2b1a2a2-Y16169/Z37831, formed 850 ybp, TMRCA 700 ybp, Israel.

G2b1a2a2a-Z5999, BY21363.2, formed 700 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp, Roumenia.

G2b1a2a2b-Y81219, (BY165438?), formed 700 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp. Ukraine

G2b1a2a3-BY147680, .


G2b1a2b-Y14600, FGC32413, formed 1050 ybp, TMRCA 1050 ybp.

G2b1a2b1-Y14601, FGC32409, formed 1100 ybp, TMRCA 850 ybp, Ukraine.

G2b1a2b1a-FGC32397, formed 850 ybp, TMRCA 850 ybp, Germany, Latvia.

G2b1a2b1b-FGC55702,formed 850 ybp, TMRCA 225 ybp, Poland.

G2b1a2b2-Y50032, BY165834, Y52805



G2b1b2c-Z44684, Z44685, Z44686,.

G2b1b2d-Z45084, Z45086,.

G2b1b2e-Z45085, Z45086,.




G2b2-FGC3022, Italy, Armenians in Turkey, .

G2b2a Z8022, an archeological find in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, 9,250 cal.BP, now in North Jordan and South Syria, but, Southern Syrians. Jordanians, Italians.

G2b2b-Z37343, Armenians.



Wezmeh Cave Zagros, Iran

The oldest archaeologically find, which has been determined to belong to the Y-DNA haplogroup G, is a man who had G2b. His remains are found in the Wezmeh Cave in the Zagros Mountains, the far west of Iran. He lived 9,250 before present. He most likely had brown eyes, relatively light skin, and black hair, although Neolithic Iranians carried reduced pigmentation-associated alleles in several genes and derived alleles at 7 of the 12 loci showing the strongest signatures of selection in ancient Eurasians.




Early Neolithic G2b man (25a)

Cappadocia, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Human remains are excavated from two different Neolithic locations in Cappadocia in central Anatolia, in and in Tepecik-Çiftlik and hereof were investigated a total of nine ancient individuals, 4 excavated in Boncuklu and 5 in Tepecik-Çiftlik. In both was one man with haplogroup G.

In the Aceramic Neolithic Boncuklu an G man is found (Bon004) who lived 8,300 BCE, 10,300 ybp. and his clade is G2a2b2b-PF3258.

In the Pottery Neolithic Tepecik-Çiftlik the G man (Tep003) lived circa 6,500 BCE, 8,500 ybp, and he is G2a2a-PF3147, as tested PF2159+.






Neolithic Aegeans

G2a2b2a1a1-L78 an equivalent of L13 is found in an archaeological find in Barcin Höyük, N-W Turkey dated about 8300 ybp and G2a2a1b- is the oldest archaeologically found G in Europe from a burial ground in Kleitos in Northern Greece dated round thre same time. Here farming and sedentism first appeared in Mediterranean and Central European.

North Aegean archaeological sites

North Aegean archaeological sites investigated in Turkey and Greece (25b)


Derenburg Germany

The second oldest archaeologically found G in Europe comes from a neolithic burial ground at Derenburg, in Saxen-Anhalt (Germany). It is dated between 7.000 and 7,500, ybp. Y-DNA SNP's from three men could be determined: two men had Haplogroup F, and one man had G2a2b2. The STR's were not determined, so the haplotypes are not known. (26)

Stone tumb near Derenburg in Sachsen Anhalt (Dld.)

One of the many stone tumbs near Derenburg
in Sachsen Anhalt (Germany)

Contents of a stone tumb near Derenburg in Germany

The dead person was buried on his left side with his head facing east.


Starčevo and LBK Culture in Hungary

From nearly the same period are the archaelogical finds in Starčevo in North-West Hungary and the finds of the Linear Band culture in the Carpathian Plane in Central Hungary, 8000 to 7000 ybp, old. These are the earliest settlements of the Neolithic culture in Europe.

From seventeen men the Y-DNA haplogroup could be determinated. Haplogroup F is found in 23,5%, G2a in 18%, in whom, based on haplotypes, almost certainly was G-PF3147. The rest 41%, had G-L30. Total G, is nearly 60%. The others had I1-P37. (27)


Halberstadt in Germany

G2a2a-PF3147 andG2a2a1-PF3148, are found in several skeletons dated between about 7500 and 7000 years before present, in a people buried in Halberstadt, Germany. (26a)



Ötzthal Tirol Austria

The thirth second oldest archaeological find of Haplogroup G, is the ice mummy who was found over a decade ago in a glacier at the edge of the Ötzthal, in Tirol in Austria. It is the mummy of a man who lived during late Neolithic times, at the beginning of the Copper Age. His age is calculated to be 5,300 years, and his genome has been well researched. His haplogroup is G2a2a1a2a1a-FGC5672. His mt-Haplogroup is K1. (28)

This is the oldest human mummy, found to date in Europe and had been well preserved by glacial ice. He had brown eyes, was lactase intolerant, about 55 years old, 5 feet 2.5 inches tall, and probably a hunter. He had a very long bow with him, about 6 feet long, and fourteen arrows, some not yet finished. He also had a copper ax made of 99.7% pure copper. He wore sturdy clothes which had been patched, a hat, and shoes with soles made of bearskin. Considering this relatively expensive clothing as well as tools for hunting and working, it is thought that he may have been a leader. From the chemical analysis of his bones and teeth, one can conclude that he must have be born in the region Bolzano and during a long time of his live lived in Winschgau on the South Slopes of the Italian Alps.

He had significant arteriosclerosis, a worm infection, Lyme's disease and joint disorders which may have been the result of this last infection. He had a fresh arrow wound in the shoulder and quite likely bled to death. An arrowhead was found high in his chest; the wooden arrow shaft had been removed, probably by himself. His precious belongings were not removed at the time. He had a full stomach, having recently eaten flour products and deer meat, but he had no food with him. He had rows of dashes tattooed on one knee and on his back, at the lumbar vertebrae, which possibly had a magical-medical significance. And yes, bloodstains from four other persons were found on his clothing, but nothing has yet been announced concerning these.

De mummy Ötzi in the glacier of the Ötzthal

Ötzi the iceman

Ötzi reconstruction

Reconstruction of Ötzi the iceman from the Ötzthal (29)


Treilles (Fr.)

25 graves from about 5000 years, ago were found in a large Neolithic burial mound in Treilles, Languedoc-Roussillon, in France. Twenty of the twenty-five men had G2a, based on their markers. This is a remarkably high rate of 80%. The other 20% had R1b, and E1b1b.

All of the G men had the same haplotype, so they were closely related family members.

 DYS Markers   393   390    19   391   385a   385b   439   389I   392   389II   458   437   448   GATA 
 456   438   635 
  DYS value   14 23 15 10 13 15 11 12 11 30 18 16 20 10 14 10 21

De Treille markers (31)

The low percentage <2% of shared lineages between Treilles and current populations, and the fact that the ancestral and current G2a haplotypes do not seem related, imply that the G2a lineage of Treilles was probably lost between the end of the Neolithic and today.


Ergoldingen (Germany)

In an early medieval grave in Ergoldingen, in Bavaria (Germany), dated round 670 AD, six men were buried together, two were G2a2, one must have been G2a2a-PF3147 because of his double DYS19 values, the other had G-Z2022, so was G2a2b2a1a1a1a-CTS9909. They were buried with their swords, spears, and shields, so they were probably knights.

 DYS Markers   393    19   391   385a   385b   426   388   439   389 I   392   389 II   458   459a   459b   447   437   448   449  GATA
 438   481   446 
  DYS value 244E   14  14-15        11 13 11 12 11 29 16 9 9 23 16       10 21 21
  DYS value 244F   13   10 15 15 11 12   12 11 29 19 9 9     22 27 12 11 21 16

The markers of the 7th century Bavarian cavalrymen. (32)


The arrival of Haplogroup G in Asia and Europe

Haplogroup G, must have entered Europe during the earliest Neolithic. The oldest archaeological graves are found in Hungary, later follow Germany, Italy, France and Spain. Today G is a marginal group in Europe but in the time of the the first farmers nearly 60% of the European population had G. They brought the Linear Band Culture (LBK). They replaced the hunter-gatherers for a big deal and with them the old Haplogroups.

Most oldest G samples belong to G2a2a-PF3147, and G2a2b-L30. They form nowadays only 5% of the European population.

Dominant newcomers

Today haplogroup R1b1a2-M269, is dominant in Western-Europe, occurring at rates between 50% and 80%. Scholars increasingly think that this haplogroup emerged about 8.000 ybp in Asia Minor and then spread to Europe. They were the second wave of immigrants from Anatolia, bringing with them the Chalcolithic culture , the Copperage in the late Neolithic. After their arrival in Europe, a population explosion occurred within this group and within 1000 years they became the dominant group in an area stretching from Hungary to the Atlantic Ocean.

During the following millennia, they pushed the resident population of hunter-gatherers to the peripheries: to the Alps, like the Iceman with his bow; to the Islands of the Mediterranean, like Sardinia; and to the UK Isles. This explains the relatively high concentrations of haplogroup G in these regions. (39)

The arrival of this new population is also evidenced in the mtDNA samples, which also show a major change during this same time period: the resident mtDNA being pushed to the edges of Europe.

Comprehensive population genetic analyses utilizing large databases of present-day populations have disclosed genetic affinities of the Linear Pottery Culture with the contemporary Near East, Turkey and the Caucasus, supporting the theory of a genetic influx from this region into Central Europe at the time of the advent of farming, and explaining the apparent genetic discontinuity between foragers and farmers. (41)

With the invasion of the Goths at the beginning of our era, it is assumed that the eastern Alans peoples moved to the Caucasus, to what is now Northern-Ossetia-Alania. The highest rate of occurrence of haplogroup G2a1a1-FGC693, is in the Caucasus. The question remains whether this clade came in the Caucasus from the North or from the South. It is thought more and more that the latter is the case. (42)

This Alan DNA is discussed along with their history on the Alans page of this website.

Last modification:

  —   Webmaster: Boed Marres.